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SEO Smackdown: Information Architecture vs. Technical Architecture

Which architecture is more important for online findability?

Information architecture vs. technical architecture image

Since 1995, one of the costliest search engine optimization (SEO) mistakes we encounter is poor information architecture. With mobile-friendly websites becoming more common, a narrow-and-deep architecture makes content more difficult to find.

Learn which type of architecture is most important, and when this type of architecture should be implemented.

In This Article

Site architecture = information architecture + technical architecture

All too often, when we inform clients that the core issue with a website's search engine visibility is the site's information architecture, our findings are immediately passed to the technical team.

Inevitably, someone on the technical team kindly points out that the content is crawlable, and the architecture is fine. And since we don't know Google's algorithm, we must not know what we are talking about.

Result? A whirlwind series of conversations that yielded bruised egos, a poorly architected website with little or no search engine visibility, and frustrated clients.

How did that happen? Where were the disconnections and miscommunication?

Believe it or not, many SEO professionals, developers and other IT professionals do not understand the role of information architecture (IA) in the SEO process. Additionally, this group often does not understand the role of IA in the web development process.

These misunderstandings and misconceptions lead to bruised egos and frustrated clients. To get all web professionals on the proverbial same page, let's review some of the differences and sources of confusion.

Understanding information architecture

We believe the simplest and clearest definition of information architecture comes from the Information Architecture Institute website. Information architecture is organizing, labeling, and connecting website content to support usability and findability.

Four words you want to hear when you work with a consultant on an information architecture project:

  1. Organization. Content should be organized in a way that closely matches the mental models of how site visitors will typically locate or discover it..
  2. Labeling. All websites should have a formal labeling system that is shared among people and departments for clarity and consistency.
  3. Usability. The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. (ISO 9241-11)
  4. Findability. All websites should support the 3 main ways that users locate and discover information: browsing, searching, and asking.

The determination of a website's information architecture should occur long before a site is coded and programmed. In other words:

  • Information architecture should always PRECEDE technical architecture.
  • The term "site architecture" refers to both information architecture AND technical architecture.

When you hear or read the following geek-speak, we are reasonably sure that are not talking to a qualified information architect:

  • Crawlability
  • Indexation
  • 301 redirects (.htaccess, etc.)
  • Canonicalization
  • Robots exclusion
  • URL workarounds
  • NOFOLLOW attribute

All of these aforementioned terms are parts of technical architecture, NOT information architecture.

Web professionals constantly confuse information architecture with technical architecture. Because of that, technical architects end up making information architecture decisions…and that is a critical mistake.

In the long run, technology-centered design is generally counterproductive to project and business goals.

~James Kalbach, author of Designing Web Navigation & Mapping Experiences

We believe user-centered design (UCD) and user-experience design (UXD) approaches and an intuitive information architecture are far more cost- and time-effective than technology-centered design.

There are many ways to organize content including, but not limited to:

  • Date/time
  • Alphabetical
  • Geography/location
  • Topic
  • Target audience
  • Task/process
  • Attributes/facets
  • Combinations of the above

Why did an information architect choose to organize and label content on a website via facets or by target audience? Did the information architect iteratively test the organization and content labels with participants who fit the primary personas? That's what information architects do. They do not determine content organization based on crawlability or the flowage of "link juice."

Information architecture isn't site navigation

Even though information architecture is not site navigation, IA should guide site navigation. Therefore, here are some site navigation items to know during a website development project:

Types of website navigation - desktop/laptop computers
Types of website navigation from the book Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

Figure 1: Adapted from Information Architecture for the Web and Beyond by Peter Morville, Louis Rosenfeld, and Jorge Arango. Used with permission.

Types of website navigation - mobile
Types of website navigation from the book Information Architecture for the World Wide Web

Figure 2: Mobile navigation is more challenging for users because the navigation often migrates from a broad-and-shallow navigation to a narrow-and-deep one..


  • Primary navigation. What are the labels to be presented in primary navigation? How many navigation labels will be in primary navigation? What is the order that primary navigation labels will be presented? Where will primary navigation be placed?
  • Secondary navigation. Is there secondary (local) navigation for each primary navigation label? What will those labels be, and what order will these labels be presented? Where will secondary navigation be placed? If a page doesn't contain secondary navigation, what will the layout of the page be?
  • Third- and fourth-level navigation (as needed). Continue with naming conventions, order in which labels are presented, and the number of labels.
  • Contextual navigation. What types of contextual navigation will be on different page templates (category, product, help, service, form, etc.)? Contextual links such as alternatives, upsells, most popular, and other related links are just as critical for findability as a primary taxonomy and associated local links. Is there an effective balance of parent-child links as well as sibling-sibling links?
  • Supplemental navigation. Supplemental navigation consists of a site index, site map (not an XML sitemap), and guides. Large websites often need more supplemental navigation than small-to-medium size websites.
  • Number of links per page. How many links per page is too many for users/searchers? For example, we would expect a category page, (wayfinder) site map, and a site index to contain more links than a product or a help page.

    On the flip side, how many links are too few? Orphaned–page content appears less important to search engines (because there is only one or two links to them). And orphaned-page content seems less important to users because that content is difficult to locate and discover.

Notice that in this navigation list, we did not once mention canonicalization, 301 redirects, NOFOLLOW attributes, and so forth.

Even though it might seem as if we are dismissing technical architecture, we are not. Technical considerations are not important for accessibility and the searcher experience. We understand the importance of providing access to content via browsing, searching, and asking. Technical considerations are critical for online findability.

Technical architecture & findability

Peter Morville stated in his book, Ambient Findability (2007, Wiley), "You can't use what you can't find."

We agree. Many technical architects agree with Morville…but with blinders on. A perfectly architected and usable website might not be accessible to search engine spiders. Therefore, website owners should implement technical SEO without comprimising the user experience.

As a web developers, we have to make many technology decisions for clients such as:

  • Server types
  • Content management systems (CMS)
  • Navigation format (text links, graphic images, menus)
  • Coding and scripting
  • Troubleshooting individual pages

Even if we don't make final technology decisions, we are often asked to consult about those decisions from the perspective of searchers and search engines.

We do not make a technology decision purely based on how a search engine interprets navigation systems and content. We look at the big picture: how BOTH site visitors and technology interprets content...including navigation systems.

First, we want to know what the information architecture, marketing, and usability teams have determined. Then we make technology decisions. Information architecture should not only guide site navigation. Information architecture should also guide technical architecture.

Duplicate content delivery, for example, can limit accessibility to desired content via the commercial web search engines. Duplicate content delivery (often found on sites with user-generated tagging and sites with a faceted classification architecture) can annoy and frustrate users.

So if we or other qualified information architects determine that a website's content is best organized using faceted classification or user-generated tagging? We know that we will need to get a technical architect involved early in the development process to minimize the negative SEO impact.

Troll Bridge Ahead - Must Solve Google's Algorithm to Pass (image)Here is another example: menus. We read about the pros and cons of using various menu layouts for navigation systems, particularly with responsive designs and adaptive designs. As an SEOs, we understand why the technical team might want to implement menus:

  • Preserves screen real estate
  • Some search engines can crawl them (it depends on how they are coded/programmed)
  • Mobile friendliness
  • "People love them"

As information architects and usability professionals, We have to consider the failure rate of different menus (fly-out menus are more error prone than drop-down menus), the paradox of choice, and the technology used to access content. (Please see Jared Spool 's article, 6 Epic Forces Battling Your Mega Menus.)

Information architects don't need to know Google's algorithm or the latest URL workaround to provide labeling and accessibility advice to a technical team. Information architects don't need a degree in computer science. Technology teams dismiss should not information architecture and usability guidance because it "might harm rankings."

In reality, the clear organization and labeling of information cam increase sales, conversions, and search engine visibility. "It's high time to put the 'I' back in IT," said Louis Rosenfeld.

Smackdown: which is more important?

I believe that a successful website architecture is a combination of an effective information architecture and corresponding technical architecture. I do not believe that technical architecture trumps information architecture. I do not believe that information architecture trumps technical architecture. I believe that technical architects and information architects must listen to and support each other.

"Information architecture is concerned with the structure and arrangement of the content and a great deal of it can be done without knowing anything about the implementation," said Dorian Taylor, researcher, consultant and former board member of the Information Architecture Institute. "Technical architecture is concerned with the implementation of the system and a great deal of it can be done without knowing anything about the content."

"In some ways we can say that SEO is about creating structures that are meaningful to machines—in this case, search engines—so that those machines can in turn generate structures that are meaningful to people," Taylor continued.

We need to listen to each other instead of dismissing information architects with, "I think you are more of a UX person than an SEO person" statements, as if information architects' contributions to findability is less important than technical implementation. I know plenty of information architects with superb technical skills. They might know more about findability and SEO than you realize.


  • Johnson, J., & Finn, K. (2017). Designing User Interfaces for an Aging Population: Towards Universal Design. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Kalbach, J. (2007). Designing Web navigation: Optimizing the user experience." O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  • Leuthold, S. (2010).User interface, navigation design and content representation: Three perspectives on World Wide Web navigation (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Basel, Switzerland).
  • Mackenzie, I. S.(1992) "Fitts' law as a research and design tool in human-computer interaction". Human-Computer Interaction, 7, 91-139.
  • Pernice, K., & Budiu, R. (2016). Beyond the Hamburger: How to Make Navigation Discoverable on Desktops, Nielsen Norman Group, 24. Available at:
  • Pernice, K., & Budiu, R. (2016). Hidden- and Visible-Navigation Study: Methodology. Nielsen Norman Group,26. Available at:
  • Pernice, K., & Budiu, R. (2016). Hamburger Menus and Hidden Navigation Hurt UX Metrics. Nielsen Norman Group26. Available at:
  • Pernice, K., & Budiu, R. (2016). How to Make Navigation (Even a Hamburger) Discoverable on Mobile. Nielsen Norman Group, 26. Available at:
  • Rosenfeld, L., Morville, P., & Arango, J. (2015). Information Architecture: For the Web and Beyond. O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  • Spencer, D. (2009). Card sorting: Designing Usable Categories. Rosenfeld Media.
  • Spencer, D. (2010). A Practical Guide to Information Architecture. Penarth: Five Simple Steps.


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